Paper ID- JVST-04-05-2023-1602
Among all the available solutions to the current high energy demand and consequent economic and environmental problems, solar energy, without any doubt, is one of the most promising and widespread solutions. However, conventional solar systems face some intractable challenges affecting their technical performance and economic feasibility. To overcome these challenges, increasing attention has been drawn towards the utilization of heat pipes, as an efficient heat transfer technology, in conventional solar systems. To the authors’ knowledge, despite many valuable studies on heat pipe solar collectors (mainly during the last decade), a comprehensive review which surveys and summarizes those studies and identifies the research gaps in this field has not been published to date. This review paper provides an overview of the recent studies on heat pipe solar collectors (HPSCs), their utilization in different domestic, industrial, and innovative applications, challenges, and future research potentials. The concept and principles of HPSCs are first introduced and a review of the previous studies to improve both energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of these collectors is presented. Moreover, a concise section is dedicated to mathematical modeling to demonstrate suitable methods for simulating the performance of HPSCs. Also, the latest applications of HPSCs in water heating, desalination, space heating, and electricity generation systems are reviewed, and finally, some recommendations for future research directions, regarding both development and new applications, are made.
Paper ID- JVST-04-05-2023-1601
This paper proposes a method for designing the rotor profiles of twin-screw compressors using a rack defined in the normal plane. All tooth profile segments are explicitly defined as tangent continuous in the normal section to generate a pair of conjugated rotors. Numerical comparisons between the two types of screw rotor tooth profile design, one based on a normal system, the other on an axial system, show the advantages of using the normal-rack generation method (NRGM). Most particularly, this method allows the same hob used for screw rotors to be used to manufacture mating rotors even as the helix angle varies, because in a normal system the circular pitch remains the same. The numerical results also indicate that the rotor tooth thickness generated by the NRGM rack cutter can prevent serious deflection for a variety of helix angles and tooth combinations.
Paper ID- JVST-04-05-2023-1600
Recently, a new type of ionization vacuum gauge was introduced, which was proposed as a reference and transfer standard in the range of 10-6 Pa to 10-2 Pa because of its excellent stability and linearity. In contrast to present models of ionisation vacuum gauges, all electrons have a well-defined path length through the ionisation space. This even allows one to predict the sensitivity for a gas species provided that the ionisation cross section of the gas molecules for electrons between 50 eV and 200 eV is known. Following the development of this gauge we investigated its metrological performance in terms of linearity, resolution, repeatability, reproducibility, transport and long-term stability, disturbances by magnetic fields, influence of the surrounding earth potential and so on. The gauge demonstrated excellent metrological properties and is indeed suitable as an accurate reference and transfer standard, but can also provide important economic benefits to manufacturers and users.
Paper ID- JVST-04-05-2023-1599
Humid air is a very important service environment, in which metal friction parts should be enhanced to offer excellent corrosion resistance and wear resistance. The B4C coating is an excellent candidate material to enhance the corrosion resistance and tribological behaviors. The purpose is to investigate the effect of negative bias voltages on the tribological properties of B4C coatings under a high relative humidity environment. Amorphous B4C coatings were successfully prepared by closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technology and its microstructure, hardness, elastic modulus, adhesive force and tribological properties were systematically studied. Results demonstrate that the B4C coatings deposited at each negative bias voltage have a columnar structure and the surface roughness remained unchanged (about 1.0 nm), while the thickness, hardness, elastic modulus and adhesion force increase first and then decrease with the negative bias voltage increasing. Among them, the B4C (−50 V) coating showed the best mechanical properties. It should be noted that the B4C (−50 V) coating with an excellent corrosion resistance also exhibits the lowest friction coefficient (~0.15) and wear resistance (7.2 × 10−7 mm3·N−1·m−1) under humid air (85% RH). This is mainly due to the tribochemical reaction of B4C during a sliding process to produce boric acid at the sliding interface. B4C coatings can provide an excellent corrosion resistance and high wear resistance due to their high chemical stability and high hardness.